السعودية

لأول مرة يقوم فريق من علماء الآثار بمسح أثري في منطقة بالسعودية في محاولة لإلقاء الضوء على حضارة غامضة ازدهرت ذات يوم هناك، وهي الحضارة النبطية التي تركت آثاراً لم يتم الكشف عن الكثير منها.

وتعرف صحراء العلا في السعودية بلياليها الحالكة مما يتيح لمتأملي النجوم من دراسة الأجرام السماوية دون مشاكل ناجمة عن أي تلوث ضوئي.

لكن المنطقة باتت أكثر جذباً للآثاريين. فقد ازدهرت في هذه المنطقة الحضارة النبطية أبتداءا من القرن الأول قبل الميلاد واستمرت نحو 200 عام.

ورغم أن النبطيين أداروا إمبراطوريتهم من عاصمتهم مدينة البتراء في الأردن إلا أنهم أقاموا مدينة حجرية (مدائن صالح الحالية) في صحراء العلا، وكانت بمثابة عاصمتهم الثانية.

ويعتزم علماء آثار إجراء أول تنقيب أثري في منطقة تعادل مساحتها مساحة بلجيكا.

وبدأ الفريق الذي يضم أكثر من 60 خبيرا، مشروعا يستغرق عامين لاستطلاع قلب المنطقة في مساحة تبلغ نحو 3300 كيلو متر مربع في شمال غرب السعودية.

وهذه هي المرة الأولى التي تخضع فيها مساحة بهذا الحجم لدراسة علمية أثرية في السعودية.

وتجري عمليات التنقيب في “مدائن صالح” ومواقع نبطية أخرى منذ بعض الوقت على يد مجموعة من الخبراء السعوديين، ومن بينهم عبد الرحمن السحيباني المحاضر بجامعة الملك سعود في الرياض.

وقال السحيباني :”كنت أركز في وقت سابق على الحضارتين الدادانية واللحيانية، والآن فإن الهيئة الملكية للعلا تعمل بمنظور أوسع من أجل فهم أكبر لكيفية تطور المجتمعات المبكرة في المنطقة”.

وتعمل الهيئة على وضع أحدث التقنيات تحت تصرف خبراء الآثار في الموقع.

فبينما يمكن أن تميز خاصية “غوغل إيرث” والعين المجردة المدربة الصخور الطبيعية عن تلك التي تدخل فيها البشر، فإن الطائرات الخفيفة المزودة بكاميرات متخصصة هي التي توفر أكبر تفاصيل ممكنة عن المنطقة التي تشمل وادي العلا والوديان المحيطة.

وبحسب ربيكا فوت، عالمة الآثار الأمريكية المسؤولة عن التنقيب لحساب الهيئة الملكية بالعلا، فإن الجهود السابقة ركزت على الحفريات لأن التنقيب الشامل يتطلب يتطلب الكثير من الوقت والموارد المتاحين الآن.

وتعتقد فوت أن هذه الدراسة ستضع السعودية على خريطة التاريخ القديم.

وتضيف: “نعرف الكثير عن الفترة بين الألف الأولى والثالثة قبل الميلاد، نعرف الكثير عن مصر القديمة وميزوبوتاميا (بلاد الرافدين)، وبالمقارنة فإننا لا نعرف سوى القليل عن شبه الجزيرة العربية في التاريخ القديم، فكيف ستؤثر اكتشافاتنا على فهمنا للتاريخ القديم، لا نعرف بعد، ولكن من المرجح أنها ستعيد تشكيل رؤية العالم في التاريخ القديم”.

قضت فوت سنوات طويلة تعمل في البتراء، المدينة القديمة في الأردن والتي مازالت تمثل أشهر أثر خلفته الحضارة النبطية. وتقول إن المسح الجوي مهم لاكتشاف المواقع غير التقليدية الذي قد يتطلب الأمر سنوات طويلة لاكتشافها.

409 thoughts on “الحضارة النبطية: حضارة غامضة في السعودية”
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